Suddenly included: Cultural differences in experiencing re‐inclusion

Michaela Pfundmair, Verena Graupmann, Hongfei Du, Dieter Frey, Nilüfer Aydin
Published Online:
25 Jul 2014
Volume/Issue No:
Volume 50 Issue 2

Additional Options

In the current research, we examined whether re‐inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re‐inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re‐inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re‐included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment.

© 2014 International Union of Psychological Science