Temperament and self‐based correlates of cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning preferences

Małgorzata A. Gocłowska, Nawal Aldhobaiban, Andrew J. Elliot, Kou Murayama, Ahmed Kobeisy, Ashraf Abdelaziz
Published Online:
28 Aug 2015
Volume/Issue No:
Volume 52 Issue 3

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People vary in the extent to which they prefer cooperative, competitive or individualistic achievement tasks. In this research, we conducted two studies designed to investigate correlates and possible roots of these social interdependence orientations, namely approach and avoidance temperament, general self‐efficacy, implicit theories of intelligence, and contingencies of self‐worth based in others' approval, competition and academic competence. The results indicated that approach temperament, general self‐efficacy and incremental theory were positively related, and entity theory was negatively related to cooperative preferences (|r| range from .11 to .41); approach temperament, general self‐efficacy, competition contingencies and academic competence contingencies were positively related to competitive preferences (|r| range from .16 to .46); and avoidance temperament, entity theory, competitive contingencies and academic competence contingencies were positively related, and incremental theory was negatively related to individualistic preferences (|r| range from .09 to .15). The findings are discussed with regard to the meaning of each of the three social interdependence orientations, cultural differences among the observed relations and implications for practitioners.

© 2015 International Union of Psychological Science