The Rotter Locus of Control Scale in 43 Countries: A Test of Cultural Relativity

Authors:
Peter B. Smith, Fons Trompenaars, Shaun Dugan
Published Online:
27 Sep 2007
DOI:
10.1080/00207599508246576
Pages:
377-400
Volume/Issue No:
Volume 30 Issue 3

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A databank of 9140 responses to the Rotter (1966) locus of control scale was analyzed, using multidimensional scaling techniques. Respondents were employees in business organizations in 43 countries. Three interpretable dimensions were identified. The first was interpreted in terms of Schwartz's (1992) dimensions of mastery over the environment versus harmony with the environment. It also correlated significantly with country means for internality. The second distinguished responses from countries identified by Hofstede (1980) as individualist and collectivist. The third referred principally to the role of luck and chance. Parallels with the results of Levenson (1981) and the implications of convergence with the results of cross‐cultural studies not based upon the concept of locus of control are discussed.

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